Thursday, December 26, 2019

The World s Largest Incarceration Rate - 992 Words

The United States of America is known as a country of independence, liberty, and rights; within the lines of our national anthem the Stars Spangled Banner, it is clear to see how the phrases the land of the free and home of the brave, symbolize the ideals that have been centralized into the American Society for hundreds of years. Despite being recognized as a world power; for its military structure and the believed system of possibilities in terms of self advancement, the United States of America houses a very dark and inhumane secret; a sociological failure that perhaps is called that way, given the as a nation, we neglect, fail to address, and persecute those that because of their inherited skin color, look different than the accepted sociological norm of whiteness. It is shameful, to me at least, that the term American is a representation of the world s largest incarceration rate; it’s even more shameful, how we prosecute, isolate, and declare what President Nixon once beli eved was the proper measure to take on poor communities; the war on drugs. For hundreds of years, we as a country have idealized with what Mustafa Emirbayer Matthew Desmond have identified in their book Racial Domination, Racial Progress the Sociology of Race in America, as a mistake; mistake that has cost thousands of minorities their reputations and has impacted not only their tranquility, but their overall success rate in the promised land of opportunities. In addition to the ongoingShow MoreRelatedThe American Justice System Is Corrupt1536 Words   |  7 Pagespeople who have done something wrong even when it s for petty stuff like writing a bad check. Some stuff is understandable like murder or other stuff, but some is outrageous. The American prison population has been absolutely ridiculous; it s crazy for the U.S. To have such high prison rates. The more you know about it the more frustrating it gets, and if you ask almost anyone you would think so too. The only people who might agree are big business s owners like American Express and Bank of AmericanRead MoreThe American Criminal Justice System1398 Words   |  6 Pagessystems in the world. However, like anything it has its flaws. There are many flaws but the largest three, in my opinion, would be the fact that we have the highest incarceration rate of any other country, the high penalties for drug users, as well as the jury system. The high incarceration rates and the penalties for drug users affect each other but they are still issues on their own. In fact, many of issues within our system coincide within each other. Addressing the incarceration rate issue, sinceRead MoreThe, Jim Crow And Mass Incarceration1056 Words   |  5 PagesMichelle Alexander writes and speaks about the 3 caste systems slavery, Jim Crow Laws, and mass incarceration. She asserts that racial separation has not gone away but rather morphed into present mass incarceration. Racial segregation has taken a new form and exists in prison systems and in socio-economic ways Caste system locks people up literally virtually. Alexander writes, â€Å"Jim Crow and mass incarceration have similar political origins. As described in chapter 1, both caste systems were born, inRead MoreMass Incarceration Essay1278 Words   |  6 Pages MASS INCARCERATION The prison population in the United states has increased 500% in thirty years. Since the 1970s social inequality has impacted the American prison system. America has 2.3 million people in prison which is â€Å"five times more than England and twelve times more than Japan.† We want to know why our prison population is growing and what are the core reasons. Has our society caused mass incarceration? Is it based on conflict theory or social stratification? Our research will includeRead MoreWhy The Incarceration Rate So High For Young Black Males?1428 Words   |  6 PagesAmerica has the largest justice system in the world. America also has the highest incarceration rate with over 2 million people in prison. African Americans account for approximately 40 percent of those inmates. Why is the incarceration rate so high for young black males? By examining the data and demographics, and the causes and consequences a greater understanding will be gained as to why these disparities ex ist. As of December 2013, according to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the number ofRead MoreReforming The United States Prison System940 Words   |  4 PagesNathan Brand AP English 11 Ms. Westphald 1/19/2016 Reforming the United States Prison System The United States is the largest jailer in the world. With only 5 percent of the world s population and a disproportionate 20 percent of the worlds prison population the United States also has the highest incarceration rate in the world (Chamman). In fact one in every one hundred and ten adults in the United States will be incarcerated. Many of these adults will return to prison later in their life (ACLU)Read MorePrivatization Within The Criminal Justice System Essay1510 Words   |  7 Pages The United States has an incarceration problem that personifies issues throughout the entire criminal justice system. The United States, with just 5 percent of the world s population, currently holds 25 percent of the world s prisoners (Khalek). This issue runs deeper than just incarceration; it permeates every level of the criminal justice system, from incarceration to probation. Many states have turned to private institutions in an attempt shed operating costs, while also increasing effectivenessRead MoreMass Incarceration Is Defined As The Imprisonment Of A Large Amount Of People1439 Words   |  6 Pageslevel, mass incarceration is defined as the imprisonment of a large amount of people. However, that does not tell the whole story. The majority of people incarcerated are minorities, and although mass incarceration began as a system of unjust racial and social control, today it continues for many political reasons including government grants, swaying voter opinion, and for-profit prison revenue. The United States incarcerates more people, per capita, than any other nation in the entire world. StateRead MoreBeverly Daniel Tatum Describes Racism As A System Of Advantage1485 Words   |  6 Pagesvarious ways. In other words, blacks are considered less intelligent than whites. The incarceration rates have grown tremendously since the last time someone can remember. The largest jailer in the world is the United States. Philadelphia, however, has the nation’s highest incarceration rates. Surprisingly, 60% of them are still awaiting trial but 72% of them are black. Research has show’s that mass incarceration rates goes hand in hand with segregated cities. In â€Å"The City: Prison’s Grip on Black Families†Read MoreIncarceration Of Americ The United States1487 Words   |  6 PagesIncarceration in America The United States has the largest prison population in the world. The U.S.’s path to our over population has been decades in the making. â€Å"The United States makes up about 4 percent of the world’s population, and it accounts for 22 percent of the world’s prison population.† (Lopez). Prison over population is a growing concern within our society creating and contributing factors include longer sentences, rising costs, prison gangs, rapes, racism and mental health issues.

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Essay on Government Surveillance and Eduard Snowden

For years the government has been secretly committing surveillance. The FBI places wiretaps, monitors calls, and reads emails of millions of people. Whether they are trying to catch thieves or prevent terrorism, spying is a part of everyday life for the people of the United States. Before, this surveillance was committed in secret, with no one but the governments knowing what, and why it is happening. Then, in the 20th and 21st centuries, people began to find out. From the Pentagon Papers in the 1970’s, or recently Edward Snowden publishing papers about NSA surveillance, people are shocked and outraged by the new knowledge that we are not as anonymous as we think (Vilines, 1). Government surveillance has lowered citizen trust, increased†¦show more content†¦By spying on people who are helpers and assistants to these groups, but don’t have a criminal record in the United States, we can gain more information on the terror abroad (Sulmasy, 1). Another reason is to catch thieves, burglars, and murderers in the US. Implementing CCTV has lowered the amount of shoplifting and robberies (Bledisoe, 20). It has been proven that people are more likely to do the â€Å"right thing† if they are being monitored, and less likely to question authority, which will lead to lower crime and less public disturbances (Villines, 1). Another reason for the increase in surveillance is the increase in online activity. New technology makes it easier than ever for people all over to world to set up websites and profiles for sharing information, including terrorism plans, information, and funds for setting up these operations (Sulmasy, 2). However, there is also new techniques to stop surveillance from catching these criminals plans. Anonymous browsers like TOR and the Deep Web make it more difficult for people’s information to be intercepted (Grossman, 2). The NSA is trying to intercept and manage to collect data from these networks using better techno logy than ever. New data mining software is in use to try and capture wanted criminals, such as the NSA’s prism program (Greenwald, 2) . The PRISM program allows the NSA to ‘tap in’ and read data off social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, Apple, and Youtube (Greenwald, 2). The

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

I Am Legend free essay sample

In the Novel I am Legend, the protagonist, Robert Neville, is seemingly the only survivor of a city that has converted the rest of humanity to vampires. Roberts mission is to destroy â€Å"the others† before they can infect him. The theme of this book is that one has to do what one has to do to stay alive. Using symobolism, and imagry, Richard Matheson reveals that to stay alive one will go the extra mile instead of giving up. â€Å"when I die , I shall only be dead† . Quote shows symbolism because when one dies you are dead . So what Robert was trying to say is that when he dies he should only be dead nothing more nothing less not remembered for anything and not a hero . This quote is significant to the theme because Robert is trying to stay alive but he knows that a point is going to come where he has to die, so he said that in the quote briefly. We will write a custom essay sample on I Am Legend or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Matheson uses symbolism because that is one of the best ways to get a message across to the reader. The themes importance to the world is that one can never give up keep fighting and striving and good things will come. â€Å"I am Legend†. This quote is a metaphor and Robert in this quote is saying he is a legend but doesn’t want people to think of him as a legend. He wants people to think of him as a man who does what he has to do to survive and that is why the quote is so significant to the theme. The author used a metaphor because it attracts readers attention and makes them try to break the quote down. This quotes importance to the world on a bigger scale is that theres nothing legendary about survinving. â€Å"Let this hell be our heaven. † This quote shows symbolism and Robert Is trying to make something good into something bad. What Robert is saying is that since were living in hell lets try to make this heaven instead and make good of our last here. The themes importance to the world is you only live once so make all out of it .

Monday, December 2, 2019

What does the novel teach us about loneliness Essay Example For Students

What does the novel teach us about loneliness? Essay The Sailor who fell from grace with the sea. What does the novel teach us about loneliness? Loneliness is a condition of human life, an experience of being human. Everyone feels loneliness at one or more points of his or her life. In the novel The sailor who fell from grace with the sea, almost all the character portrays traces of isolation, solitude and loneliness: Noboru, Fusako, Ryuji, the leader and the group of Noboros friends. Noboru is most definitely lonely, not that he is physically in solitude. However, his loneliness comes from his heart: his inability to find security in his life, his struggles with being strong and masculine, as in his description about himself: He never cried, not even in his dreams, for hard-heartedness was a point of pride. A large iron anchor withstanding the corrosion of the sea and scornful of the barnacles and oysters that harass the hulls of ships, sinking polished and indifferent through heaps of broken glass, toothless combs, bottle caps, and prophylactics into the mud at the harbor bottom that was how he liked to imagine his heart. Someday he would have an anchor tattooed on his chest and at the same time being a child who longs more love from his mother have all attributed to him alienating himself from adults. We will write a custom essay on What does the novel teach us about loneliness? specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now First, he lacks a masculine figure guiding him in his childhood, as his father passed away when he was just 8. In the book, Noboru had an obsession for everything mechanical, related to the sea and he knew everything about ships and the sea. This shows that he struggles to embrace manliness and masculinity by first liking what man likes. At first, he admires Ryuji greatly for he believes that Ryuji is a cool, manly sailor. However, Noboru grew up with his mother, the only person he could rely on. Despite wanting to rebel and become more like an independent real man, Ryuji in facts fell extremely attached to his mother and may even suffer from Oedipus complex. He longs to go to his mothers room despite his mother warning him not to: Its time you stop coming into mothers room so often with that excuse about wanting to watch the ships; youre not a child anymore. He peeks at his mother at night when she has scolded him because he is afraid of his mother distancing him , therefore he feels compelled to watch her at night, not just out of revenge, but love and attachment as well. When Fusako fell in love with Ryuji, Noboru felt threathened somehow, that was the reason he wrote the charges against Ryuji. Despite his inner will to attach to his mother, he has grown up. To relieve his loneliness, he makes friends with the leader and his group of friends, where he accepted teaching of the leader regarding issues, which altered his impression of adults and the world. He would not accept adults treating him kindly like how an adult treats a normal 13 year old. He regards that kind of interaction as hypocrisy. For example his encounter with Ryuji in t he park, he considered Ryujis friendly smile as cowardly and ingratiating. All these thoughts of his stems from his insecurity and loneliness, because he is lost and directionless, thus he turns defensive and seeks all ways to makes himself stronger and braver. For example the killing of the kitten, Noboru was afraid at first, however to make a real man of himself, he chose to kill. After the incident, his thoughts were I killed it by myselfI can do anything, no matter how awful. This gave him Dutch courage, not by wine, but the act of killing, the act of taking away someones life. Which reminds me of Japanese Soldiers in the world war 2, where they trained new soldiers at war by letting them practice killing people to give them courage. Perhaps, this is a part of Boshido, the art of warrior of Japan. Nevertheless, Noboru was a very lonely child. .ud6d3a23d73988b5278695db2c1ee444d , .ud6d3a23d73988b5278695db2c1ee444d .postImageUrl , .ud6d3a23d73988b5278695db2c1ee444d .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ud6d3a23d73988b5278695db2c1ee444d , .ud6d3a23d73988b5278695db2c1ee444d:hover , .ud6d3a23d73988b5278695db2c1ee444d:visited , .ud6d3a23d73988b5278695db2c1ee444d:active { border:0!important; } .ud6d3a23d73988b5278695db2c1ee444d .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ud6d3a23d73988b5278695db2c1ee444d { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ud6d3a23d73988b5278695db2c1ee444d:active , .ud6d3a23d73988b5278695db2c1ee444d:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ud6d3a23d73988b5278695db2c1ee444d .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ud6d3a23d73988b5278695db2c1ee444d .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ud6d3a23d73988b5278695db2c1ee444d .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ud6d3a23d73988b5278695db2c1ee444d .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ud6d3a23d73988b5278695db2c1ee444d:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ud6d3a23d73988b5278695db2c1ee444d .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ud6d3a23d73988b5278695db2c1ee444d .ud6d3a23d73988b5278695db2c1ee444d-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ud6d3a23d73988b5278695db2c1ee444d:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: In 'London', 'The Chimney Sweeper' and 'The Sick Rose', Blake explores many aspects of English society in the Victorian era EssayAnother character that fascinates me is the leader. He gathers a group of classmates the age of 13 and teaches them anti-social and destructive values. He is extremely cynical and negative. Despite his young age, he forms strong, nagative perspectives of the world and of adults, such as murder would fill those gaping caves in much the same way that a crack along its face will fill a mirrorachieve real power over existence.genitals were for copulating stars in the milky way. Their pubic hair, indigo roots buried deep beneath white skin and a few strands already strong and thickening, would grow out in order to tickle coy stardust when the rape occurred.Real danger is nothing more than just living . From the leaders deeply philosophical notions about life, we can see that he is a very intelligent child, he proclaims himself as a genius and excels in school. He seems like a popular child with friends, comes from a rich family and gets good results, but in fact he is very lonely and lacks love and attention from his parents. He holds hatred for his father, as he once said A father is a reality concealing machine, a machine for dishing up lies to kids, and that isnt even the worst of it; secretly he believes that he represents reality. Fathers are the flies of the worldHis parents are busy with work and cared little for him, therefore to relieve his loneliness, both physical isolation and inner loneliness, he gathers his group of friends, who more or less suffer from the same plight as him. As he is very unhappy of his predicament, he forms a cult group, a mini society where he takes control, and whatever he says is right. In this mini-society, he can make judgments, decisions and would be able to set his rules that generally defied societal norms. Fusako and Ryuji are somewhat similar, therefore they feel a connection between themselves. They were both lonely, together they could satiate each others loneliness and become one whole. Both of them are lonely because they lost people who were dear to their hearts: Fusakos husband had passed away for 5 years; Ryuji lost his parents and sister before he became a sailor. Both of them do not have friends as well: Fusako dedicated herself wholeheartedly into work and taking care of Noboru after her husbands death; Ryuji did not forge friendship with anyone else on the ships he was in and was considered unsociable and eccentric. He preferred to listening songs in his own room to gabbing with other sailors. Therefore, they felt a connection and fell in love on first sight. Indeed they completed each other, falling in love like two teenagers falling in love the first time: watching the sun rise together, walk in the park Overall, the characters in the book all experience loneliness, in various degrees and for different reasons. However a characteristic in common is that they try to relieved their loneliness with various methods, resulting in different outcomes. Fusako and Ryuji have chosen to end their loneliness by falling in love. The leader and Noboru have chosen to turn their loneliness to hatred and seek for strength using murder. Who said that an idle mind is a devils workshop? Perhaps in this novel, it should be a lonely mind is a devils workshop.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Angkor Wat, Cambodia

Angkor Wat, Cambodia The temple complex at Angkor Wat, just outside of Siem Reap, Cambodia, is world famous for its intricate lotus blossom towers, its enigmatic smiling Buddha images and lovely dancing girls (apsaras), and its geometrically perfect moats and reservoirs. An architectural jewel, Angkor Wat itself is the largest religious structure in the world. It is the crowning achievement of the classical Khmer Empire, which once ruled most of Southeast Asia. The Khmer culture and the empire alike were built around a single critical resource: water. Lotus Temple on a Pond: The connection with water is immediately apparent at Angkor today. Angkor Wat (meaning Capital Temple) and the larger Angkor Thom (Capital City) are both surrounded by perfectly square moats. Two five-mile-long rectangular reservoirs glitter nearby, the West Baray and the East Baray. Within the immediate neighborhood, there are also three other major barays and numerous small ones. Some twenty miles to the south of Siem Reap, a seemingly inexhaustible supply of freshwater stretches across 16,000 square kilometers of Cambodia. This is the Tonle Sap, Southeast Asias largest freshwater lake. It may seem odd that a civilization built on the edge of Southeast Asias great lake should need to rely on a complicated irrigation system, but the lake is extremely seasonal. During the monsoon season, the vast amount of water pouring through the watershed causes the Mekong River to actually back up behind its delta, and begin to flow backward. The water flows out over the 16,000 square kilometer lake-bed, remaining for about 4 months. However, once the dry season returns, the lake shrinks down to 2,700 square kilometers, leaving the Angkor Wat area high and dry. The other problem with Tonle Sap, from an Angkorian point of view, is that it is at a lower elevation than the ancient city. Kings and engineers knew better than to site their wonderful buildings too close to the erratic lake/river, but they did not have the technology to make water run uphill. Engineering Marvel: In order to provide a year-round supply of water for irrigating rice crops, the engineers of the Khmer Empire connected a region the size of modern-day New York City with an elaborate system of reservoirs, canals, and dams. Rather than using the water of Tonle Sap, the reservoirs collect monsoon rainwater and store it for the dry months. NASA photographs reveal the traces of these ancient waterworks, hidden at ground level by the thick tropical rainforest. A steady water supply allowed for three or even four plantings of the notoriously thirsty rice crop per year and also left enough water for ritual use. According to Hindu mythology, which the Khmer people absorbed from Indian traders, the gods live on the five-peaked Mount Meru, surrounded by an ocean. To replicate this geography, the Khmer king Suryavarman II designed a five-towered temple surrounded by an enormous moat. Construction on his lovely design began in 1140; the temple later came to be known as Angkor Wat. In keeping with the aquatic nature of the site, each of Angkor Wats five towers is shaped like an unopened lotus blossom. The temple at Tah Prohm alone was served by more than 12,000 courtiers, priests, dancing girls and engineers at its height - to say nothing of the empires great armies, or the legions of farmers who fed all the others. Throughout its history, the Khmer Empire was constantly at battle with the Chams (from southern Vietnam) as well as different Thai peoples. Greater Angkor probably encompassed between 600,000 and 1 million inhabitants - at a time when London had perhaps 30,000 people. All of these soldiers, bureaucrats, and citizens relied upon rice and fish - thus, they relied upon the waterworks. Collapse: The very system that allowed the Khmer to support such a large population may have been their undoing, however. Recent archaeological work shows that as early as the 13th century, the water system was coming under severe strain. A flood evidently destroyed part of the earthworks at West Baray in the mid-1200s; rather than repairing the breach, the Angkorian engineers apparently removed the stone rubble and used it in other projects, idling that section of the irrigation system. A century later, during the early phase of what is known as the Little Ice Age in Europe, Asias monsoons became very unpredictable. According to the rings of long-lived po mu cypress trees, Angkor suffered from two decades-long drought cycles, from 1362 to 1392, and 1415 to 1440. Angkor had already lost control of much of its empire by this time. The extreme drought crippled what remained of the once-glorious Khmer Empire, leaving it vulnerable to repeated attacks and sackings by the Thais. By 1431, the Khmer people had abandoned the urban center at Angkor. Power shifted south, to the area around the present-day capital at Phnom Pehn. Some scholars suggest that the capital was moved to better take advantage of coastal trading opportunities. Perhaps the upkeep on Angkors waterworks was simply too burdensome. In any case, monks continued to worship at the temple of Angkor Wat itself, but the rest of the 100 temples and other buildings of the Angkor complex were abandoned. Gradually, the sites were reclaimed by the forest. Although the Khmer people knew that these marvelous ruins stood there, amidst the jungle trees, the outside world did not know about the temples of Angkor until French explorers began to write about the place in the mid-nineteenth century. Over the past 150 years, scholars and scientists from Cambodia and around the world have worked to restore the Khmer buildings and unravel the mysteries of the Khmer Empire. Their work has revealed that Angkor Wat truly is like a lotus blossom - floating atop a watery realm. Photo Collections from Angkor: Various visitors have recorded Angkor Wat and surrounding sites over the past century. Here are some historic photos of the region. Margaret Hays photos from 1955. National Geographic/Robert Clarks photos from 2009. Â   Sources Angkor and the Khmer Empire, John Audric. (London: Robert Hale, 1972). Angkor and the Khmer Civilization, Michael D. Coe. (New York: Thames and Hudson, 2003). The Civilization of Angkor, Charles Higham. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004). Angkor: Why an Ancient Civilization Collapsed, Richard Stone. National Geographic, July 2009, pp. 26-55.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Deconstruction of Magazine Article Essay Example

Deconstruction of Magazine Article Essay Example Deconstruction of Magazine Article Essay Deconstruction of Magazine Article Essay Certain techniques of language and layout structures are often utilised in a variety of written media, such as magazines, books and newspapers, in order to manipulate the target audience’s opinions and beliefs. A journalist and their article’s motives can be deconstructed by considering five specific areas: the purpose and message of the article, the target audience and their susceptibility to persuasion, the language techniques being used, the bias of the article and lastly, the tone of the article and the audiences’ reactions. The article ‘Rainbows for Kate’, written by Di Webster (March 6th 2008, Marie Claire magazine), will be analysed for its construction within the boundaries of these areas. In order to persuade a certain group of people, a journalist must construct an article with a direct purpose and with a message. ‘Rainbows for Kate’ was written with the intent to inform readers of how friendship is very strong and is always with you when times get hard. The authors viewpoint is clear as every paragraph she talks about the meaning of life, love and friendship. This article is about how two friends come together from another mutual friend and discuss these three things. The ideal reader of this text would feel sympathy and understand why the writer would want to write this article. Instead of directing an article to the general public, a journalist must select a target demographic in order to successfully market the article and its ideas to a narrower, more specific group of people. ‘Rainbow for Kate’ was published in the middle of Marie Claire, spreading from page 102 – 106. As it was published in Marie Claire, this indicates that the target demographic for the article is an older group of people. More specifically, the target audience includes ambitious, kind hearted adults aged 25 and above, who enjoy life and no matter what life throughs at them they will always keep positive and take it on and all it has to offer. The target demographic is also for an older person as they understand and can relate themselves to this article. They would be easily persuaded because everyone has had an experience with cancer, not necessarily themselves but a family member or a friend and would therefore be sympathetic. It is published in a respectable magazine with an informative and emotional tone; therefore they would not question the journalist’s article. If it were published in a different type of magazine with an alternative reputation, such as Cleo or Cosmopolitan, it would attract a different sort of audience and would also not be accepted so readily. It is the subject matter that appeals to the target demographic, rather than the language. The ideas introduced and discussed in the article, such as what is life all about, why do bad things happen to good people, is there a reason? All these topics interest the target audience. The layout of the article also assists in persuading the readers. The main picture, which spreads across two pages, is a colourful, very bright, has pictures of the friends and all the sketches of what the sass and bide collection is about. These pictures, paintings and clippings further enhance the title, which suggests that grieving in a colourful manner and using friendship as an inspiration is a great way to deal with a loss. In order to further persuade the target demographic, the journalist has incorporated several language techniques in order to convince the reader of just how genuine the friendship and love was in the article. In several sections of the article, quotes and things people did were included in the text. An example of this is when the husband of the lady that is dying says what he loved about his wife. The lady’s friend then goes on to back up his stories. Throughout the article the designer from sass and bide talks about how much she connected with the sick lady and how she cant stop thinking about what they discussed. However, not all techniques and aspects which construct an article are visible to the naked eye. One of the most commonly used techniques is the bias of one side, at the exclusion of another. The excluded opinions are often referred to as the gaps and silences, or silenced voices. In this article, the main excluded groups are the educational toys’ spokesperson or manufacturer, parents, users of educational products and also experts on the positives and negatives of the products’ use. While the article promotes attention and extended physical contact between parents and babies, it does not mention any negatives, or the possibility of giving too much attention. By not including these opinions and ideas or the positives of educational products, a strong biased is created. As there is only one side presented, readers often base their opinions on these facts and points, and do not resist what is being offered. However, not all techniques and aspects which construct an article are visible to the naked eye. One of the most commonly used techniques is the bias of one side, at the exclusion of another. The excluded opinions are often referred to as the gaps and silences, or silenced voices. In this article, there are no main groups excluded groups. All the necessary people to do with the story are mentioned. The text also does not mention any negatives. However, it would defeat the purpose of the article if there were but fortunately there are not any. In conclusion, many techniques and strategies are employed by journalists when writing and producing articles. Articles are written with a strong purpose, and are often written in order to manipulate the readers’ opinions. This can be done through bias, gaps and silences, the targeting of a specific demographic and also the tone it is written in. It is important to remain unaffected by the article, and to critically observe it through different viewpoints.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Disaster recovery Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Disaster recovery - Essay Example To avoid these type of issues, each personnel and employee has responsibility. Team members should be selected based on experience and expertise of enterprise risk mitigation. This provide a global security assessment to ensure that a global virus does not threaten the enterprise risk systems. A business continuous system is a checkpoint of audits that ensure that all elements are covered in a plan in case of server failures or breach in privacy(Johnson,2011). First and foremost, it mitigates IT risk in any given environment. Secondly, IT risk mitigation is important to understand enterprise mitigation. One of the most crucial elements to understand within the realm of security are the User Domain, one of seven domains in an IT infrastructure, is considered to be the domain most at risk for attack and compromise, primarily due to the inherent weakness of the human interaction element. enterprise risk mitigation. Social engineering and user domains were key issues that needed to be mitigated in this realm (Tipton,

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Discuss Fayol's four functions in relation to an Australian Essay

Discuss Fayol's four functions in relation to an Australian organization that you are familiar with. Provide an analysis of ho - Essay Example The principles used by the management include division of work, and authority in the organisation2. Division of work is the specialization that increases the output of each individual employee. Authority enables the management to give orders to the subordinates. Unity of command and unity of function are also essential in the management functions. Remuneration principle asserts that employees should receive fair wages, with stability of tenure in their employment contract. Other principles of management outlined by Fayol include the scalar chain whereby the communication flows from the top management to the subordinates and order principle that asserts that all people and materials should be at the appropriate place in the right time3. Accordingly, the team spirit and imitativeness of employees is critical in promoting creativity in work4. Planning According to Fayol, one of the core functions of management is planning. This function entails deciding the future organizational goals a nd preparing plans of achieving the goals. Planning involves determining a future course of action and taking adequate steps of achieving the pre-determined goal5. Rio Tinto is a multinational company that has a presence in Australia. Through several mergers and acquisitions, the company has expanded to become one of the leading mining companies engaged in the mining of aluminum, uranium, coal, copper and iron ore. The Management of Rio Tinto has to prepare different types of plans. For instance, there are weekly plans, monthly plans, operational plans, tactical plans and strategic business plans. At the corporate level, the company prepares long term plans that extend more than ten years. The strategic plans include the diversification of operations and long term commitment to expanding operations in different continents. The company also prepares yearly plans that entail the expected profits and costs of operations during the year. The tactical plans of the company mainly focus of functions such as mine prospecting and exploration. Tactical plans are prepared for each department such as employee recruitment and remuneration plans, financial plans, and mining department plans. The operational plans are mainly prepared by the first level managers and outline the activities and accountabilities of the specific managers. Other plans that are common at Rio Tinto include weekly plans and daily plans of mine exploration, with accompanying details of activities to be undertaken by each employee and the supervisors6. Planning entails defining the current situation, establishing the objectives of the plans, and developing an action plan for attaining the goals7. Other elements of planning include budgeting, implementing the plans and controlling the plans. Planning should also forecast the aids and barriers to the goals of the organisation. For instance, some of the aids to achieving planned objectives in Rio Tinto include well qualified personnel and superior technol ogy. However, some barriers to planning at Rio Tinto include complexity of the plans due to unforeseen uncertainties like a possibility of cancellation of the mining rights and contracts in many jurisdictions. Some of the factors that influence the planning function in Rio Tinto include political factors, environmental factors and government control over the mining industry in many countries. Planning is important in any organisation since it enhances

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Nursing-Sensitive Indicators Essay Example for Free

Nursing-Sensitive Indicators Essay According to the American Nurses Association, nursing-sensitive indicators â€Å"reflect the structure, process and outcomes of nursing care.† (Nursing Sensitive Indicators, 2015) Understanding the indicators is an important piece of nursing, not only to assist the patient, but the patients loved ones as well, to ensure quality patient care. In this particular case, had the nurse understood the reasoning and data behind the Pressure Ulcer Rate and Restraint indicators, and communicated the necessity to report any pertinent findings the CNA may discover in the nurse’s absence, the CNA would not have dismissed the reddened area over the patient’s lower spine and would have immediately informed the nurse of the finding. Upon returning the patient to bed, the CNA would have also known not to place the patient back in bed on his back and re-apply the restraints. Instead, would have had the patient lay to one side and stressed the importance, to the patient and family member, of frequent turning, to reduce the chance of pressure ulcers. Quality patient care can only be achieved with teamwork and open communication. The discussion of pressure ulcers in hospitalized patients has become an increasing issue with more attention to the prevention of such since the early to mid-1990’s. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) state that stage III and stage IV pressure ulcers occurring during admission are considered preventable (Zaratkiewicz et al., 2010). While the gentleman in our case scenario represented what would be considered a stage 1 pressure ulcer, with proper quality care and training, even this stage 1 ulcer could have been prevented or at the very least, the progression halted. If the nurse had a better understanding of nursing-sensitive indicators, or the theory behind them, then maybe he or she would take more ownership in the prevention of pressure ulcers. Harborview Medical Center in Seattle, Washington, conducted their own study regarding pressure ulcers and ways to prevent them. Their study was  intended to track, prevent and improve skin-related outcomes (Zaratkiewicz et al., 2010). While the results of the study showed a large increase in minor pressure ulcers, it showed a huge decrease in stage III and IV ulcers, the most costly and reportable types. Education and staff reinforcement lead to early detection and improvement in practice, ultimately faring better for the patient. Maybe if the hospital in the scenario had communicated such important figures or conducted their own study, the nursing staff and even the CNA’s would have a better understanding and ultimately provide better care. As far as ethical issues such as the request for a kosher meal that ended up not being kosher, we as nurses accept and agree to abide by a code of ethics. If I were the nursing shift supervisor and this case scenario occurred, there are a few different things I would use to discuss with my staff. First of all, I would remind all nursing staff of the code of ethics we all accepted the day we graduated nursing school and offer copies to each of them to serve as a reminder. Specifically, for this scenario, I would point out; â€Å"Human Dignity is respect for the inherent worth and uniqueness of individuals and populations. In professional practice, concern for human dignity is reflected when the nurse values and respects all patients and colleagues† (The Essentials, 2008). While I am not Jewish and not receiving a kosher meal does not seem to be a big deal to me, I know that it is important to my patient and an acceptable request, so it should be a priority for me. Secondly, I would start a monthly ethical education series, choosing a different topic to better educate my staff. In the world we live in today, there are so many cultures and a necessity to be more aware of ethical treatment, that the staff should not be expected to â€Å"just know it.† This knowledge comes from on-going education and it is up to the hospital and staff to make sure they are kept as up to date as possible regarding ethical treatment of patients. I would also involve my Board of Ethics or ethical expert from the hospital to intervene and sincerely apologize to the family. While we won’t be able to fix the meal that was already eaten, we can ensure the patient and family that steps have been taken to support special requests of patients from now on. References Nursing-Sensitive Indicators. (2015). Retrieved from

Friday, November 15, 2019

Mormons In Utah Essay -- Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

Mormons in Utah I intend to prove that the Mormon religion, which began to rise in both reputation and numbers in Utah, is a strange mixer of Christianity, American pragmatism, millennialist expectations, economic experimentation, political conservation, evangelical fervor and international activity, but is still a highly followed, rapidly growing, and successful religion. Mormonism is a major modern religion with more than 8 million members, and over 4 million in the United States. Mormonism was founded in 1830 by Joseph Smith who was known as the prophet. This is a young age for such a widely practiced religion, and its numbers grow daily. Mormonism is officially the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. Its founding doctrine is based on the assumption that Christianity was too corrupt and ungodly, and that restoring true Christian values was necessary. A revelation like this may only come through God who needs to put the true, pure forms of Christianity in a divine authority. The Mormons, who follow four books including The Bible, The Book of Mormon, Doctrine of Covenants, and Pearl of a Great Price do believe that all religions have some amount of truth to them and do good in one form or another, but it is only their religion that is " the only true and living church upon Earth". In 1820 , Mormonism was f...

Tuesday, November 12, 2019


|| || This is the ‘un-edited' collection of Kedar's postings of pratidinaM subhaashitaM on the sanskrit-digest mailing group archives. If you would like to edit and format these for posting on the sanskrit documents web site, please write to [email  protected] com. | Any good endeavour is begun be a prayer to Ganesh or Saraswati. Hence this second subhhaashita of ASAD' is dedicated to Saraswati : | || One who is as white as a garland of kunda flowers and waterdrops, who has worn white apparel, whose hand is placed on the stem of the vINA, who is sitting on a white lotus, and who is always worshipped by Gods such as Brahma, Achyuta (Vishnu) and Shankara, that Sarasvati, who completely steals (one's) lethargy may bless me ||. In this third verse of ASAD, learn three things from the donkey||. ? ? | | (He) carries loads without rest, is not deterred by the heat or cold, is always content these three things should be learnt from the donkey | | This subhaashita is a prayer to Shankara. It has a nice verbal composition | ? || Equipped with a spear(pinAka), snake(phaNi), the crescent of the moon(bAlendu), ashes and the ganga, may this idol composed from the ‘pa varga' (the consonants pa, pha, ba, bha, ma) lead us to heaven (apavarga). here is a riddle ) | ? || The apparent meaning : O Lotus eyed, I wish to drink water from you. If you give it to me, I do not want it, but if you dont give it, I shall drink it !!! (which obviously makes no sense||) The solution : the trick is in the word â€Å"dAsyasi† which has been interpreted above as the future tense form of the verb ‘dA' meaning to give. However it is correctly interpreted as the sandhi dAsi + asi Hence the second line actually means, if you are a dAsi, I dont want it, but if you are not a dAsi I shall drink it. Perhaps this goes back to the times where braAhmins would note accept even water if it was touched by untouchable dAsis|| | || (There are many verses that praise the effects of good company. However this is my favourite among them ) ? | || You cant even notice a hint of a drop of water fallen on hot iron. The same drop shines like a pearl on a lotus leaf. And in the ‘swati' nakShatra fallen inside a sea shell, it becomes a pearl ||Usually excellent, medium and bad states (of a person) are dependent on company. Again as Marathi speaking people will recognise, this is exactly identical to the following marathi verse : ? ! | || | (I think many people know this verse that praises knowledge) ? ? ? ? ? ? | || It cannot be stolen by thieves, cannot be taken away by the king, cannot be divided among brothers and does not cause a load. If spent, it always multiplies. The wealth of knowledge is the greatest among all wealths. ? ? | || When in combat against each other we are 5 and they are hundred. But when against others, we are a hundred and five ||. (obviously refers to Kauravas and Pandavas. I believe this is supposed to be said by Dharma. ) ? | || The wise man acquires knowldge and wealth as if he is never going to die. And he practices relegion as if he is tightly held in his hair by death. Here's another one I believe accredited to Kalidasa ? | || The birth of one lotus on another has neither been seen nor heard of. Little girl, how is it that on your lotus face there are these two lotuses ? (her eyes) One more subhashitam that starts with â€Å"kamale† | ? | || On the lotus sits Goddess Kamalaa (Laxmi), Hara (Lord Shiva) resides in the Himaalayaas. In the vortex of the churning ocean resides Hari (Lord VishNu), I know this precisely. = Brahma (seated on a lotus) = Vishnu (lotus eyed) = Shiva? (crowned by the enemy of the lotus (moon? )) = the sun (lit. husband of the lotus) = praised = praised ? May Laxmi, whose lotus like feet are praised by the trinity and the sun(? ) make me her lotus (ie, abode) your interpretation of kamalArikirITa is perfect. the moon is the enemy of the lotus because when the moon rises, the lotus closes itself. : = = to carry; = = carrier hence kamalabhRidvAha is the carrier of the carrier of a lotus, which is the cloud or the lord varuna. there is no special reason for using both stuta and nuta ||stuta means praised, and nuta means saluted|| however, the best part is â€Å"karotu me kamalaM† the word ka has many meanings. one among them is â€Å"evil†. â€Å"alaM† means enough. Hence k arotu me kaM alaM means may she end all my evil ||. | || As all the water fallen from the skies goes to the sea, similarly salutations to any God finally reach Keshava. | ? || Reactions to calamities should be considered well in advance. It is no good to start digging a well when the house is on fire ! | | = really = spring = sweet = it should actually be virauti : means cries. = beautiful = cha + Amra (Amra = mango) = petal = (is this correctly transliterated ? ) = intention overall meaning : the sweet crying of the cuckoo in spring has the intention of the â€Å"nikraika† of the beautiful mango petal || This shloka was poorly transliterated||please refer the following transliteration guidelines when transliterating sanskrit into English. This will result in others understanding your shlokas more easily ||and hence responding quicker||. | || What can a wicked person do to someone who has the weapon of fogivance in his hands ? Fire fallen on ground without any grass extinguishes by itself. | : ? | || forgivance is the strength of the weak. forgivance is the ornament of the mighty. f the world is conquered by forgivance, what cannot be accomplished by forgivance ? | : ? | || forgivance is the strength of the weak. forgivance is the ornament of the mighty. if the world is conquered by forgivance, what cannot be accomplished by forgivance ? wrong in the first half of second line of the above verse itself ! Even to get the meaning â€Å"In the world, forgivance has the power of conquering†, the words look odd |||Does â€Å"vashikrute† give th is meaning ? = conquered. vashI+kRi = to conquer = conquered. ShamAvashIkRite loke is a â€Å"sati saptami† usage. it is to be interpreted as yadA lokaH kShamAvashIkRitaH tada (when the world is conquered by forgivance) In the sati saptami usage, the saptami vibhaki is used to denote the temporal relationship between two successive events so basically it means, even when the world can be conquered by forgivance, what else remains | || Laxmi resides at the tip of the hand, sarasvati in the middle, Govinda at the root. Hence one should take â€Å"darshan† of one's hand in the morning. | || If I rememeber the sloka it is â€Å"karamule tu gouricha† it's not govondaH. Laxmi resides at the tip of the hand, sarasvati in the middle, Gouri(Parvati) at the root. Hence one should take â€Å"darshan† of one's hand in the morning. Hi Padma. glad to see you on the list. you are probably right about â€Å"karamUle tu gauri cha† this makes a more consistent subhaashita but sometimes there are more than one versions of a subhaashita in existence with small differences and both of them are â€Å"correct† again, gauri makes a better paaTh than govindaH |||| hanks ! kedar (fwd) Thanks for the sholka. This shoka about Kshama and the line of thinking. and other features that go with it were adopted by Gandhiji for our freedom. There was the other group (jahal) who asked questions like what should be done for the person who is determined to kill you regardless of what you are thinking. Examples were given from the 2nd war and how a cretain group of people was removed by force etc. So the jahals justified their line of thinking. | || If I rememeber the sloka it is â€Å"karamule tu gouricha† it's not govondaH. Laxmi resides at the tip of the hand, sarasvati in the middle, Gouri(Parvati) at the root. Hence one should take â€Å"darshan† of one's hand in the morning. Hi Padma. glad to see you on the list. you are probably right about â€Å"karamUle tu gauri cha† this makes a more consistent subhaashita but sometimes there are more than one versions of a subhaashita in existence with small differences and both of them are â€Å"correct† again, gauri makes a better paaTh than govindaH |||| I have come across â€Å"karamulethu govinda† in my child hood. ecently I heard even the other one † karamu lethu gauri cha†. So obviously the subhashitham was subjected to changes as time passed , We cannot argue which is correct as we don't know the exact source of this work||Let us accept both, as both are having good meanings. | â€Å"At the top of the hand resides Laxmi. | I n the middle of the hand resides Sarasvati. | At the bottom of the hand resides Brahma. | In the morning, the sight of the hands | (is auspicious). | â€Å"O goddess with the mantle of oceans. | adorned with the breasts of mountains. | O the consort of Vishnu, salutations to thee! | pardon me for touching thee with my feet. † Note: The above prayers are generally recited as soon as one gets up from the bed. In the first sloka, Laxmi stands for spiritual wealth, Sarasvati for spiritual knowledge and Brahma for spiritual wisdom. According to the Hindu mythology, God Vishnu has two wives, Sri Devi (Laxmi) and Bhoomi Devi (Earth). They are supposed to be residing on His chest. For defiling the Earth with our feet and also with our body fluids, we beseech Her pardon. This concludes the Earth Day specials. | || The crow is black, and the cuckoo is black. What is the difference between the two ? It is when spring arrives that the crow is identified as the crow, and the cuckoo, the cuckoo. | , || Poets say that the heart of a good man is like butter, but that is not correct. The heat (frustration/sorrow/ etc. ) residing in another body does not melt butter, but it does melt the good man. I do not know whether the following two verses were indeed like a sawaal jawaab, but it definitely seems so | || | || The first verse : What is so strange about women tying glass, beads and gold all on one thread ? Even the great thinker paNini tied the dog, the youth and Indra on the same string ||(pun on the word suutra) The second verse : Gautam's wife was forcibly molested by the youth Indra. (who acted) like a dog. the great thinker pAnini tied the dog, the youth and Indra on the same string ||. I guess I should have clarified. the three words : shvA (dog) yuvA (youth) and maghavA (indra) belong to the same grammatical class ||they are declined identically, and there is a suutra (rule) in Panini's grammar that ties them together. ||. hence the pun on suutra||. | || The penniless man wishes for a hundred, the onw who has hundred wants a thousand, the one with a thousand , a lakh. The one with a lakh wants to be the king, the king wants to be the emperor, and the emperor wants to be Indra (king of Gods), Indra want's brahma's position, brahma shiva's and shiva viShNu's |||who has ever been able to kill desire ? | ? ? || Whether the philosophers prais e him or criticize, whether lakShmi enters the house or goes away as she wishes, whether death is today itself or after an eon, great men never step a foot away from the path of justice. for marathi readers : | ? || Hi. Padma pointed out a typo I had made. Instead of paJNcha, I had just written paJNa |||The corrected shloka is as follows : | ? || ive mouthed himself(Shiva), and sons the elephant mouth (Ganesh) and the one with six mouths (Kartikeya) ||how would shiva survive if Annapurna (Parvati) was not at home ? | || Himself the great lord, his father in law the king of mountains, his friend the king of wealth, his and his son the lord of the gaNas. even then roaming around begging for food is shiva's destiny only god's wish is powerful ||. ? | ? || O cloud, you roar, but do not give water. I, the chatak bird am thirsty. If fatefully the southern winds blow here, where shall you be , where shall I be and where shall it rain ? ! | || O chatak, my friend, listen for a moment with an alert mind. there are many clouds in the sky, not all of them are alike. Some wet the earth by their showers, whereas some just roar. Dont beg pitifully in front of each and every one you come across ! | || The night shall go away and it shall be dawn. The sun will rise and the lotus will smile ! While the bumblebee trapped in the lotus was thinking this, Alas ! an elephant uprooted the lotus ! I believe this is the first piece of verse in Sanskrit ; composed by Valmiki | || O niShaada, you will not come to glory till the end of eternity. or you have killed one from a pair of krauncha birds, enraptured in love. This is the first shloka in Ramayana as Krishna told me some time ago. As the mea ning indicates, Valmiki was inspired to write this shloka when he saw a hunter shooting one of two krauncha birds who were engaged in rati. I believe this is the first piece of verse in Sanskrit ; composed by Valmiki | || O niShaada, you will not come to glory till the end of eternity. for you have killed one from a pair of krauncha birds, enraptured in love. This is the first shloka in Ramayana as Krishna told me some time ago. As the meaning indicates, Valmiki was inspired to write this shloka when he saw a hunter shooting one of two krauncha birds who were engaged in rati. This was one of the first shlokas that I learned in my Sanskrit class in the 5th grade, and all the info below is based on what I learned then. most of the people on this net may already be familiar with the significance of this shloka. ever composed by aadikavi (first poet) vaalmiiki. He was in a peaceful state of mind (either meditating or taking a walk) when this niShaada (hunter) killed the male krauncha (swan? . vaalmiiki got angry with the actions of the hunter and this shloka came out of his mouth. After vaalmiiki emerged out of his rage, he realized that he had gone out of the state of equanimity and cursed the hunter out. It was then that someone else (naarada? ) appeared and told him that he had uttered the first piece of poetry and explained to him that th ere was a second meaning behind the shloka. I don't remember what the other interpretation of this shloka is except that the hunter is raama and the krauncha(s) are raavaNa and mandodarii, and that raama kills raavaNa. I don't remember what the second interpretation of the shraapa (curse) is when applied to raama. So this is how the shloka fits into the raamayaNa. ? | || No one knows what will happen to whom tomorrow. So a wise man should do all of tomorrow's tasks today. ( ||||) tomorrow = day after tomorrow = 2 days after tomorrow = yesterday = day before yesterday = 2 days before yesterday = ? | ? || Inferior men do not start (any endeavor) with the fear of obstructions. Average men , stop an endeavor when they are faced with problems. However. even though they are struck again and again by disaster, superior men never give up an endeavor that they have undertaken. | ? || The lion, even when a cub, attacks jumps upon the cheek of an intoxicated elephant. It is indeed the nature of the courageous : the age of the glorious ones is never relevant. nd for the marathi crowd, here's a marathi translation : | || â€Å" † | | || a~Nkura means the first sprout. yathA bIjastathA~NkuraH is a very famous proverb. it basically means as you sow, so you reap ||. ? ? | ? ? | || ? ? | ? || As two logs of wood come together in the ocean, and immediately go away from each other, so much alike is mankind ||. and for the marathi people, another translation : this one from the geeta rAmaayana by madgulkar in the song â€Å" . † : . | || One should not steal anything belonging to anyone, should not utter a sensitive sentence, should remember (bow down to) Vishnu's feet, and thus swim the ocean of life with ease. This ASAD is a small tribute to my sanskrit teacher, Shri Vasant Nanivadekar. He resides in Bombay, and is very well versed with the sanskrit classics as well as conversational sanskrit. He is an active â€Å"kAryakartA† in many sanskrit related projects and activities in Bombay. Above all, along with my mother he is the one who has introduced me to this great world of Sanskrit verse and literature. What follows is his translation of Tennyson's â€Å"Home they brought her warrior dead† into sanskrit verse. ? ? ? ? | || Home they brought her warrior dead She nor swooned nor uttered cry All her maidens watching said â€Å"She must weep or she will die. † | || Then they praised him soft and low Called him worthy to be loved Truest friend and noblest foe Yet she neither spoke, nor moved. ? Stole a maiden from her place Lightly to the warrior stept Took the face cloth from the face Yet she neither mov ed, nor wept. , ! Rose a nurse of nintey years Set his child upon her knee Like summer tempest came her tears â€Å"Sweet my child, I live for thee ! † There were two errors in the first paragraph in my earlier posting. This is the corrected version : ? ? ? ? | || | ? || The man without (love of) literature music or the arts is indeed an animal without a tail or horns. The fact that he survives even without eating grass is indeed a great piece of luck for the other animals. This one is similar to ASAD[32] in meaning : ? ? ? ? ? ? | || Those who do not have learning, perseverence, are not charitable, do not have wisdom, character, good qualities or relegion, are indeed a burden to on the earth in the mortal world, and live as animals in the form of man. | || The teachers who distribute knowledge among the students after getting it from their gurus, and who are storehouses of love and knowledge , are indeed like God to me. | || peed is the ornament of the horse, the intoxicated state is the ornament of the elephant. Cleverness is the ornament of a woman, and industriousness is the ornament of a man. | || I bow to you, O Sarasvati who is the giver of boons and giver of knowledge. Give me untainted wisdom and be pleased and all endowing (to me) | || In the boundless world of poetry, PrajApati (Brahma) is the only one poet. He changes the universe as and when he thinks best || | ? || The ink may be like a black mountain, the sea may be the inkpot, A branch of the tree of gods (kalpataru / mandAra ||. I believe there are five of them) may be used as a pen, and the whole earth be used as the paper. If even Sharada (Goddess Sarasvati) writes for all the time using all this material, even then, O lord, she will not come to the end of describing your good qualities. | || I haven't heard this one before, so the following may be off the mark to some extent Giving, return of courtesy, sharing secrets, asking [for one's welfare? ] eating [with one? ] , feeding, these are six characteristics of love. Need meaning of subhaaShita | || I believe this may be originally in some Purana; it's in Pancha tantra as well as in UpadeSaamRita of Ruupa Goswami. â€Å"Six symptoms of affection are giving, receiving, explaining in confidence and enquiring, accepting food and feeding. † Henry Groover (Agraahya daasa) | || I haven't heard this one before, so the following may be off the mark to some extent Giving, return of courtesy, sharing secrets, asking [for one's welfare? ] eating [with one? ] , feeding, these are six characteristics of love. you are almost right. here is the accurate meaning : gives, takes, tells and asks secrets, eats (from you) and feeds (you) are the six characteristics of love |||(friendship would perhaps be more approp riate here ||) | || When the money is gone (become poor), the hunger increases At the time of trouble, the enemities crop up when you are divided (without unity), problems become plenty. I do not know the meaning of â€Å"abhIkShNaM†. The meaning of first line depends upon this word. I think â€Å"samud. hbhada. nti† should be â€Å"samud. hbhava. nti†. Basically, the Subhaashita is trying to tell us that problems crop up only when you are devoid of the solution ! (Murphy's law ? ) I do not know the meaning of â€Å"abhIkShNaM†. The meaning of first line depends upon this word. Dictionary gives the meaning of abhiikShNam as â€Å"every moment†; it fits here, but is somewhat puzzling. With this meaning, the first pada means When wounded, blows fall every moment [The wounded get hit repeatedly] IF it is abhikShNaM, the first line will not obey the meter of the shloka. besides that everything makes sense. (it is basically a version of † when it rains, it pours † ||. | | One of the let me catch my breath shlokas? Actually this is a fairly famous one. The â€Å"correct† interpretation : Notice that ke and shava have been separated. The word â€Å"ka† means water (among several other meanings). Hence ke means in water. pANDava also means fish; kaurava also means crow. hence the interpretation is : Seeing the cadaver (shava) fallen in water, the fish were overjoyed. ALl the crows however started crying ||† O the cadaver in water !! † | ? || O vaidya (doctor), brother of Yama, I bow do wn to you. Yama only steals away one's life, but the vaidya steals one's life as well as money ! ? ? | || Not a horse, not an elephant, and never a tiger. It is the son of a goat that is sacrificed ! God is indeed a betrayer of the weak |||! | ? || The reaction to calamity must be considered before hand. IT is no use to start digging a well after your house is afire !! | ? || Even a single second in life cannot be obtained by alll precious jewels. Hence spending it without purpose is a great mistake. | || = self = satisfaction = poet = poetry = master = doorstep = light = similar = other = favour The poetry of poets is always for their own satisfaction, However, like the light on the porch of the master's house, it is also beneficial to others. (light from the porch illuminates the inside as well as the outside of a house |||) | || = seeing = twice ( + ) = said = speaking brahmA = eye = two = tongue = created S eeing is given twice as much importance as speaking by Brahma. Man has two eyes, however, only one tongue was created. ? | ? || = effort = to be accomplished = work = wish = asleep = lion + = to enter = mouth = deer/animal Work is accomplished by effort, not by wishing. Deer do not enter the mouth of a sleeping lion. Vivek Khare asked me the meaning of the word â€Å"hi† in the subhAshita : udyamena hi sidhyanti |||| The word hi means nothing. Perhaps it could be interpreted here as an emphasizer, but otherwise, it means literaly nothing. The words cha vai tu and hi are used in sanskrit by poets to fill up the meter. the words cha and tu have meanings, (and and but respectively) but the word vai has no meaning, and the word hi may be interpreted as something that emphasizes a point. In fact I am sure many of you know the famous first attempt by a quack poet : | ? ? || The poet thought up these three lines : O king, (rajendra), get up get up ! uttiShTha) mukhaM praxAlayasva (wash your face ! ) The rooster cries out in the morning (prabhAte roditi kukkuTaH ) the problem was after uttishThottiShTha rAjendra, mukhaM praxAlayasva left one letter less for the eight letter anuShTubh chhanda, and prabhAte roditi kukkuTaH had one letter extra ! so this grandmaster took the â€Å"TaH† from kukkuTaH and placed it at the end of the first line ! And now he had three out of four parts, an d he just coud not think of anything for the last part of the verse hence cha vai tu hi cha vai tu hi !!! | ? || = excellent = too much = speaker = inferior = to speak = gold = sound = bronze + = to be born The great man is rarely somone who talks too much, but the inferior man talks too much. There is no sound from gold as there is from bronze. | , || Meaning: Between ‘Chintaa' (worry) and ‘Chitaa' (pyre) the only difference is dot (anuswaara bindu in chintaa, that ‘n'). Pyre burns the dead, while worry burns the living. DON'T WORRY BE HAPPY 🙂 Ganapthi. | || The difference betn â€Å"chintA† and â€Å"chitA† is just a dot. â€Å"PYRE† burns the dead, while â€Å"WORRY† burns the living. | || + = to do a favor = lowly + = to harm = milk / water = snake = only = posion = increase Even a good turn done to a bad man results in evil. Drinking of milk by snakes is only goi ng to result in increase of their poison. uttamA AtmanA khyAtAH pituH khyAtAshcha madhyamAH | adhaMA mAtulat. khyAtAH shvashurAchhAdhamAdhamAH || : ? | ? || shabdArtha = most superior = famous = father = medium/average = maternal uncle = father in law = inferior = the worst among the inferior The great ones are famous by their own efforts, The average are famous because of their father. The inferior men are famous because of their uncle. and the worst among them are famous because of their father in law. I Thought you may like this subhashitha. .? .? ?. ..? | , || | , ?. || Bhavartha: A scholor even if he is from a backword class, is recognised and respected even in the company of the people who are most beautiful. who have great family background, and even among the gods. | || : ? | ? || shabdArtha = most superior = famous = father = medium/average = maternal uncle = father in law = inferior = the worst among the infer ior The great ones are famous by their own efforts, The average are famous because of their father. The inferior men are famous because of their uncle. and the worst among them are famous because of their father in law. I interpreted this in a different way. This shubhashita intends to convey the wealth Most respected weath is the one you earn That you inherit from your father is just OK One you get from your mother is not good And, the one you aquire from wife is the worst I am not sure if that were a different version of this shubhashita | || = effort saahasam. h = adventure = courage buddhiH = knowledge = strength paraakramaH = bravery = six ete = these = where vartante = exist = there devaH = god = helpful God will help provided the six qualities effort, adventure, courage. knowledge, strength and bravery exist. ? | ? || = Sun = Moon = air = fire = sky = earth = water = soul = Lord Yama ? = and = morning = night = both = righteousness = knows = man's = character Lord Sun, Lord Moon, Lord Vayu (air), Lord Agni (fire), the Sky, mother Earth. the water (Lord Varuna), the soul, Lord Yama, both the Day and the Night. and Dharma (the Righetousness) each one of these will know a man's character. Every moment, you are being watched atleast by one of the above ! The discussion is with reference to recent Subhashitam posted by Raghavendra the one with UdyamasaahasaM ||||etc|| Hemali Vyas disagreed with the meaning of the two words Dhairyam and Saahasam Ramakrishna from Tokyo disagreed with the Hemali's comments. Here is my opinion for whatever it is worth. DhairyaM means Dheeratwa bhavaM dhee is buddhi or intellect so in contrast to saahasaM dhairyaM must involve intellectual conviction. So in a way Hemali Vyas is right Raghavendra's meaning that it is courage is also right It should be courage born of intellectual conviction not emotional outburst. We all know what is right but many a time we do not have the guts to follow what is right we do what we feel (emotional driven) like doing. DhairyaM is the courage to do what is based on right understanding. SaahasaM I will split as sa + a + hasam ( I donot have a dictionary at my computer desk this may be my imagination). has if I remember rightly means to smile or to laugh at with a in front it means opposite to be serious that one to take things seriously not jokingly with prefix sa it could mean samyak that is total or with seriously or daringly jumping into action there is no joking around n that sense SaahasaM should imply serious adventurous pursuit in contrast to DhairyaM saahasaM need not involve intellectual conviction it could be based on just emotional outburst. So there is a possibility of one getting burned if it is not based on sound intellectual judgment. Hence the subhashitaM says one needs both the DhairraM and SaahasaM Just an intellectual curiosity If I have all t he six of them listed why do I need the help of the Deva The truth of the matter is if I have all of them I already have the help of the Deva. Having all the six of them itself is by the grace of Deva too. In Vedanta Shastra, there is a preceding deity for each of the faculties like Indra for Bhuddi etc. Hence having these qualities is a grace of God too! Hari Om! Sadananda What you have is His gift to you and what you do with what you have is your gift to Him. ? ? | || ? = no = Certainly = I am = wish = kingdom = heaven = na + punarbhavam. h = salvation = for grief ridden = for living beings = kaShTam. h, sorrow = destruction, removal â€Å"Certainly I do not wish for kingdom. I do not wish for heaven. I do not even want salvation. My humble wish is for removal of sorrow from all the grief ridden living beings. † King Rantideva asks this wish from the God. This is considered as the one of the great shlokas representing our culture. I heard the story behing this subhaashita from Sri Krishna Shastry during the â€Å"Speak Sanskrit Classes†. Will share with you someday soon. ! (See the sarcasm here) | ? || = goat = fight = sage = post death rituals = in the morning = cloud noise, thundering = of the couple = quarrel ? = and = indeed = in the result ? = no = something Fighting between the goats, post death rituals for the sages, the thundering of clouds in the morning and the quarrel between the couple there is no useful outcome (result) in any one of these : ) [`Sages' refers to those who have already attained salvation. Hence rituals for them are unnecessary. ] ? | || = minute = minute by minute = grain, bit = bit by bit = knowledge = money = and = accomplish, achieve = abandon, renounce = from where Knowledge should be persued with minute by minute efforts. Money should be earned utilising each and every grain. If you waste time, how can you get knowledge ? If you waste resources, how can you accumulate the wealth ? ? | || = and, even though = covered with gold, full of gold ? = no = for me = appeal = mother = motherland = heaven = grander, higher O Laxmana, even though Lanka is a golden land, it does not appeal to me. One's mother and motherland are greater than heaven itself. [ Said by Lord Rama upon viewing Lanka ] | || = assistance to others = give fruits (plural) = trees = flow (plural) = rivers = give milk (plural) = cows = this = body Trees give fruits to assist others. Rivers flow to help others. Cows produce milk to feed others. In the same way, our own human body should also be employed for the assistance of others. | || = na + mantram. h, non mantra (mantra = divine poem). = na + xaram. h, imperishable, a letter of the alphabet ? = no = is = root = na + auShadam. h, non medicine = useless = person = co ordinator (one who organizes, plans) = there = difficult to get, scarce There is no letter in the alphabet that cannot be used in divine poems (mantra). There exists no root which cannot be used as a medicine. Likewise, there is no useless person. The scarcity is for the one. who knows how to use them ! | || | || = one = whe el = chariot = charioteer = disabled = odd (as in odd or even) = horse ? + = to attack = only = one who has tej (brilliance) = sun = sky the bhAvArtha He has a chariot with one wheel, a charioteer who is disabled (it is believed that aruNa, the sun's charioteer was a cripple), and an odd number (i think it is seven) of horses to drive the chariot. Even then the briliant sun always attacks the sky !! So, let me wind up this small series with a subhAshita I wrote. Please excuse me for the mistakes. . | || = honey = pasted with = neem = wooden piece, stem = milk = fed with = snake = one who has taken bath = too = bad person = character, quality ? = No = indeed = leave, discard Honey paste on a bitter neem stem, milk feeding for a poisonous snake and Ganga bath for a bad person none will change their character. The bad qualities do not vanish just by changing outer look. We had to change our inner self. | || | || shabdArtha = also = tree = one that has flowered = one that has a nice fragrance = made fragrant = forest = good son = family = As bhAvArtha Even by one good tree that has flowered and has a nice fragrance, the whole forest is made fragrant, just as a whole fmaily is benefitted by one good son. ? | ? || ? ? | ? || shabdArtha = debt = remainder = fire = enemy = again + = to grow fast = hence = protect / maintain bhAvArtha Any remainder of debt, fire and enemy grow rapidly again and again, hence no remainder should be maintained||(debts should be completely paid of. and fire or enemies should be completely destroyed ) | ? ? || | ? ? || shabdArtha = rise = sun = red = fall (set) = prosperity = calamity = great man = one = form bhAvArtha The sun is red at sunrise and red at sunset : During prosp erity as well as calamity the great men have the same form. | ? ? | ? ? habdArtha = industrious = man = lion + ? = to approach = destiny = contemptible fellow = to speak + = destroy = do = manliness, virility, courage, effort = self strength = effort = done = if = to be accomplished = here = fault bhAvArtha Laxmi goes to the industrious man like a lion. Only contemptible cowards say that destiny should give. Overcome your destiny and excercise your manliness. If there is no accomplishment inspite of effort where is the fault? (If there is no success inspite of e ffort, it is not your fault ) | || | || shabdArtha prefix verb meaning = force = somewhere else ( ) = to take away ( ) = to steal + = to hit ? + = to eat + = to completely destroy + = to roam + = to abandon bhAvArtha The meaning of a verb is forcibly taken elsewhere by a prefix. Just like the meaning of the verb hRi (to steal) is changed by the following prefixes : pra, A, saM, vi, pari |||(meanings given above) | ? || | ? || shabdArtha = these = good man = foreign / other = benefit = component = one's own purposes + = to sacrifice = those who = common = effort = one who carries = opposition = no opposition = = man = demon = wellbeing + = to destroy = needlessly = who ( , ) to know bhAvArtha These, who are engaged in benefitting others after sacrificing their own purposes are the great men. Those who benefit others without opposing their needs are the common men. Those who destroy others' well being for doing good to themselves are demons in human form. However those who destroy other peoples' well being without any cause whatsoever, we do not know who they are ! Here is a marathi equivalent for the above shloka : e to satpuruSha svakArya tyajuni anyArta hI sAdhitI he to madhyama je nijArtha karunI anyArtha sampAditI he to r Axasa je svakArya viShayI anyArtha vidhva. nsitI je kA vyartha parArthahAni kariti te koNa kI durmatI ? | ? || | ? || shabdArtha = following = daily = trouble = troubled, frustrated = highest, the utmost, most excellent = pity, sympathy = temptation = to cut, cutoff = unreality; the illusion by virtue of which one considers the unreal universe as really existent and distinct from the supreme spirit = come together with = this = extremely = fickle, unstable = mind = (roughly) not easy to control = too much = sorrow = without = to run = immediately bhAvArtha O Rama, I am extremely tormented by the daily struggle of life. O most sympathizing one, cut away the temptation that has come to me with mAyA. This very fickle mind of mine is difficult to control. There is a lot of sorrow without you ! Run to me immediately ! And I am sure the marathi readers will recognize this as the sanskrit version of this verse ! ? ? ? | || It had never happened before , or been heard of before. A golden deer had never been seen before. Inspite of that, Rama desired it : At the time of destruction, one's judgement goes bonkers ||! | || shabdArtha = golden ( + ? ) = lotus ( one that is born in a lake) + = to create = sculptor = fragrance = capable / skiled/ clever = four = face bhAvArtha The sculptors are there to create golden lotuses. But onlythe four faced one (Brahma) is clever enough to produce fragrance in them ! | || | || shabdArtha = dependent only one onself = end = benefit = the creator = covering = ignorance = especiaaly = one who knows everything = society / company = ornament, asset = silence = someone who is not a scholar bhAvArtha A selfdependent coverin g of ignorance has been created by the creator with the one intention of benefitting. Especially in the company of the knowledgeable silence is an asset to those who are ignorant. And again, a marathi version : | || | ? || shabdArtha = teacher = service = knowledge = a lot = money = fourth + = to obtain bhAvArtha Knowledge (is acquired) by serving the teacher, or by a lot of money or by (exchange of) knowledge. A fourth (path) is not available | ? || | ? || shabdArtha = to walk ( ) = to stand = one = the wise man + = to examine = other = place = previous = abode, resting place = to leave, sacrifice bhAvArtha The wise man walks with one foot and stands on one foot. (never steps onto a new place without examining it ) Without examining the next place, he does not leave the previous abode. , | | || | || shabdArtha kalpa vRixa : the tree that will give you anything you can imagin e = imagined = to produce = kAmadhenu : the cow who can milk out anything you wish = something one has wished for = milks (from duh. h : to milk ) = the gem that gives you anything you can think about = something one has thought about = to give = the good men = company = everything bhAvArtha The kalpavRixa produces only what you can imagine, The kAmadhenu milks only what you want. The chintAmaNi give you only what you have thought about. However good company produces everything. Its benefits are not limited by your thoughts desires or imagination) ? | ? || ? | ? ? || shabdArtha = truth = to speak = dear, nice = false = practice = ancient bhAvArtha One should speak the truth, and say nice things. One should not say things that are true if they are not nice. And nor should one say nice things if they are not true : This is the ancient practice ? | ? || ? | ? || shabdArtha = full = pot = noise = half = p ot = noise + ? = to go = really = learned = one who is from a good family = pride = foolish person = to babble = quality = bereft of bhAvArtha A full pot does not make anynoise, however a half full pot really makes noise. A learned respectable person is never vain, but foolish people bereft of any good qualities babble incessantly. | || | || shabdArtha = coconut = form = to look = good man = other = the jujube fruit (â€Å"bora† in marathi) = outside = beautiful bhAvArtha The good men seem to be like coconuts. (Tough on the outside but soft inside). Others are like the jujube fruit, beautiful only on the outside (but sour inside). ? ? | || shabdArtha = happened = previously = news = gold = deer = desire = Rama = destruction = time = inverted, contrary to rule, wrong = intellect, judgement bhAvArtha It had never happened before , or been heard of before. A golden deer had never been seen before. Inspite of that, Rama desired it : At the time of destruction, one's judgement goes bonkers ||! As KEDAR S NAPHADE said: | || | || â€Å"drishyante api† shabdArtha = coconut = form = to look = be seen = also = good ma n = other = the jujube fruit (â€Å"bora† in marathi) = outside = beautiful bhAvArtha The good men seem to be like coconuts. (Tough on the outside but soft inside). Others are like the jujube fruit, beautiful only on the outside (but sour inside). The phrase â€Å"drishyante api† means they (coconuts) are also seen. i. e. if you look for them hard enough, you DO find them i. . they are scare to find. In contrast the â€Å"bera† (Hindi) or â€Å"bora† (Marathi) or berry (English) is seen a lot. i. e. good people are like coconuts, hard outside, soft inside and are scarce to find, bad people are like berries, soft outside, hard inside, and are found a lot. This is shlok 93 in HitopadeshaH's first chapter â€Å"Mitralaabh† Another related shubhashita from HitopadeshaH in the related topic. shloka 100 same chapter is: manasya anyat vachasya anyat karyam anyat duraatmanaam mansya ekam vachasya ekam karmaNya ekam mahaatmanaam i. e the evil people thi nk something else, say something else and do something else. The great (good) people think, say and do the same thing. Reminds me of a joke I read a long time back. A reporter asked the political figure his secret of success, and the politician replied: â€Å"Well, we think something, say something else, do something else and something else happens!! Beats me!! † :)) ShashiKant Joshi | ! ! shabdArtha = other's, foreign = food + = to get, obtain = stupid person, idiot = life = pity = to do = rare = birth bhAvArtha You idiot, dont show any pity for your life if you are getting food from someone else (free food). (Go on, stufff yourself ! fall sick ! ) Free food is rare , whereas as far as lives are concerned, you will get one at every birth !! (I am sure all our fellow grad students will strongly agree with this : ) ? | ? || ? | ? || shabdArtha = wicked person = good man + ? = to go to = many = way = to serve = repeatedly = sprayed = milk = ghee = neem = tree = sweetness bhAvArtha A wicked person shall never become good even if served in many ways. A neem tree, even if repeatedly sprayed with milk and ghee shall never become sweet. ? ? ? ? ? | || ? ? ? ? ? ? | || shabdArtha = armlet (bracelet worn on upper arm) + = to decorate = man = garland = moon = radiant = bath = smearing = flower = decorated / ornamented = head = hair (from the head) = language/ gift of speech = refined ( ; ) = to ho ld, carry, bear. = to dimnish = ornament = speech bhAvArtha Armlets do not (really) decorate a person, neither do garlands as radiant as the moon. Nor again, does the act of bathing or smearing, or flowers, or ornamented hair. Bearing a gift of refined speech is the only one thing that really ornaments a man. All other ornaments always diminish the ornament of speech is the (only) ornament (that counts). : | || | || shabdArtha = what ? = apparel / clothes ? + = to think = important = appropriateness = yellow = cloth = gave (from dA : to give) = one's own = daughter ( ) = directions + = to see = sea bhAvArtha One should indeed ponder upon the question, â€Å"What's in one's apparel ? â€Å". Apparel is indeed important for appropriateness. After looking at the one dressed in a rich yellow cloth (vishnu), the sea gave him his daughter (laxmi) and looking at the one dressedin nothing, (Shiva) the sea gave poison ! (halAhala) | || ? | ? || shabdArtha = qualities = greatness = to go = tall = seat = palace = tip, peak = crow = eagle bhAvArtha O ne achieves greatness because of one's qualities, not because of a high position. Even is placed at the top of the palace. a crow does not become an eagle | || | || habdArtha = food = dwelling = wife = mine = one who does = time = wolf = man = goat â€Å"The food is mine, the dwelling is mine, the wife is mine† : The wolf of time kills the man in the form of a goat who is always doing may may ! (mine ! mine ! ) ? . For the lion, nobody need place him on the throne by performing certain ‘samskAras. ‘ By the power of his self won might alone, he has become the lord of the animal kingdom. This position has come naturally to the lion. The poet, through the example of the lion's might and natural abilities. is simply giving us a simile to paint a picture of the great qualities of great people (mahApurushAs). They too, by their own strength, carry themselves forward. These people need no intermediaries to make their case. | || | || shabdArtha = small, little = work = one who does = man = a lot = one who talks = autumn = cloud = really = to roar = only Those men who talk too much are ones who do little work. THey are the clouds of autumn; they really only roar. (but do not give any rain) ? | || ? ? | || shabdArtha = gone = sorrow = should be done = future = to think / to worry = present = to operate (causal from vart. h) = wise One should not be sorrowful about what is past, nor should one worry too much about the future. The wise men operate by the present times. | ? || | ? ? || shabdArtha = mind = confusion = liqour = drinking = sin = practise / observance + ? = to approach = misfortune = foolish man = to go = hence = should be drunk

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Video Games Cause Violence

Video Games Cause Violence Video game violence is an increasing problem in today’s youth with violence as one of the most popular themes. Games such as Grand Theft Auto and Call of Duty are among the most popular games and have been scientifically proven to have a major effect on teens. Many people try to argue that there is a difference in the effects between genders, however it has been proven wrong. Video games have the same effects as other forms of entertainment but do not get attacked like video games because the other forms are much larger than video games and have a much wider audience. Violence in video games is a rising problem in the United States, causing teens to have less self-control and more emotional disturbances, requiring more attention from parents and the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB). Background Violent video games are gaining popularity around the world and are causing more and more problems among teen violence. Seventy-seven percent of people between ages 14 and 18 who took place in a survey reported that they play fighting or shooting games sixty-seven percent of the total time that they play games. Rashawn Blanchard, author of â€Å"Video Games Do Not Cause Violence†, stated â€Å"violence in video games simply helps players find release from the frustrations in their daily lives. † The survey also supported this with most people saying that it is just a game and that they play it to release their anger on something fake that cannot hurt anyone in the real world. They say it all depends on the person though; everyone is different and react to things differently. Younger players would be more influenced by the games, while older players would know what is fake and real. The Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) rates all the games that are sold to the public. The ESRB rates the games among the content in the games, whether it is a learning games to teach younger kids or a game that you are a person working for the mob, killing people and earning cash to go pay a prostitute. Some people say that the ESRB needs to be stricter to stop younger players from playing more mature games, while others say the ESRB needs to be less strict because if the kid wants it the parents are most likely going to get it for them to make them happy. The ESRB gives parents the ability to make decisions about the video games they choose for their families through the age and content ratings depending on the action in the game and what it allows you to do. One incident was on April 20, 1999, in the small, suburban town of Littleton, Colorado, two high-school seniors, Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris, enacted an all-out assault on Columbine High School during the middle of the school day. The boys' plan was to kill hundreds of their peers. With guns, knives, and a multitude of bombs, the two boys walked the hallways and killed. When the day was done, twelve students, one teacher, and the two murderers were dead. Klebold and Harris seemed to spend their time doing normal teenager activities. They worked together in a local pizza parlor, liked to play Doom (a computer game) in the afternoons, and worried about finding a date to the prom. For all outward appearances, the boys looked like normal teenagers. Looking back, Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris obviously weren't your average teenagers (Rosenburg). It is hard to tell if someone is being affected by video games until they tell someone or act out their plan that that has been influenced by the violent games. Another incident happened in Germany when Tim Kretschmer dressed himself in black commando suit and opened fire at random at the Albertville-Realschule school in South Germany, killing nine students and three teachers, before fleeing the scene. He would later shoot another person near a psychiatric hospital, before hijacking a car and forcing the driver to take him to the nearby town of Wendlingen. Police eventually tracked him down and shot him dead, but not before a gunfight that claimed the lives of two more passers-by, and wounded two police officers. Germany's already strict gun laws are being examined in the wake of this shooting, while politicians cluck about violence in the media and look at videogames as a possible cause. The country already has a reputation for banning outright any games that offend their censors, and a lot of material fails to (legally) make it to German gamers without heavy edits. This latest murder spree is not going to help matters at all (Sterling). This type of actions could eventually spread to the United States and make it hard for game makers to make a violent game and cause them to lose prophet and go bankrupt having a small toll on the economy. The Effects of the Games Violent video games are significantly associated with: increased aggressive behavior, thoughts and also cause increased physiological arousal and decreased pro-social behavior (Anderson). At the Indiana University School of Medicine, researchers say that brain scans of kids who played a violent video game showed an increase in emotional arousal and a corresponding decrease of activity in brain areas involved in self-control, inhibition, and attention. However what was not clear was what the MRI images indicate a lingering–or worse- permanent effect on the child’s brain, and what the effects longer playing times might have (Kalning). All of which are negative effects. Evidence form brain scans in another test seem to support a connection between playing video games and activation of regions of the brain associated with aggression (Kierkegaard). In the test that Kristin Kalning observed, 44 teens were split into two groups with one group playing â€Å"Need for Speed: Underground† (non-violent) and the other group playing â€Å"Medal of Honor: Frontlines† (violent). The scans showed a negative effect on the teens who played â€Å"Medal of Honor: Frontlines† for 30 minutes. The same effect was not present for the teens who played â€Å"Need for Speed: Underground†. In some cases the high levels of violent video game exposure have been linked to delinquency, fighting at school, and violent criminal behavior (Anderson), which would also support what happened at Columbine High School and in Germany. After visiting the Video Gamers Voters website I found many facts such as: Sixty-seven percent of American heads of households play computer and video games, which would allow these types of players to have more access to weapons. However people at the age old enough to be head of household would know what is right and what is wrong and would have less chances to do something bad. The average game player is 33 years old and has been playing games for 12 years. With the average age being that high, it might lead to problems with the ESRB restricting younger players from playing more violent games and not damage the industry. Eighty-six percent of game players under the age of 18 report that they get their parents' permission when renting or buying games, and 91 percent say their parents are present when they buy games. With the parents approving the games there would be less chances for a young player to play games over the age limit. Thirty-six percent of American parents say they play computer and video games. Further, 80 percent of gamer parents say they play video games with their kids. Sixty-six percent feel that playing games has brought their families closer together. With the parents participating in the games with the children there would be more guidance for the children to prevent the violent behaviors and the parents could also explain the different things that might happen in the game. Thirty-eight percent of all game players are women. In fact, women over the age of 18 represent a significantly greater portion of the game-playing population (31%) than boys age 17 or younger (20%). Which leads to PC Magazine saying that women have receive less effects than men, however they are not as likely to play a violent video game reducing the amount of violent video games sold. In 2007, 24 percent of Americans over the age of 50 played video games, an increase from nine percent in 1999. With a wider audience playing video games more people will understand the effects of the games and will work to prevent it. Forty-nine percent of game players say they play games online one or more hours per week. With the online play it can not be controlled to what other people do or say to each other, maybe causing other players to get angry and want to release on something else. 97 percent of the people that participated in a survey at Pasco High School stated that they played online most of the time that they played video games exposing them to more uncontrollable violent behavior. After conducting a survey among 57 peers at Pasco High School, I found that 11 of those 57 did not play video games at all. 1 percent of the males that participated in the survey did not play video games. 75 percent of the males surveyed played violent video games with 71 percent playing them most, if not all, of the time. Among the ones that played the violent video games, 100 percent of their parents approved the games and bought the games for them. 31 percent of the females surveyed do not play video games. 53 percent o f the females that play video games play violent ones. The females that played the violent games played them most of the time, with all their parents approving. How to Solve the Problem One way of solving the problem is for the ESRB to become stricter. Most of the gamers do not want this to happen and think it should be less strict allowing them to play the games that they want to play. However with all the crimes committed by younger people being blamed on video games the ESRB might not have a choice and be forced to raise the age limits for the more violent games. Another is for parents to control the games the kids play and not allow them to play the more vulgar games. Parents should not only know what the games are they should know what is in the games to see if they approve the games. If the parents just don’t care about the games the kids have more chances of being effected by the games and become more violent, making it partially the parents fault for not supervising their kids and allowing them to play the games. Another very unlikely thing to do is for the players to not play nearly as long as they normally would. This would reduce the effects on the players and still allow them to play. With the kids not playing as long it would allow them to do other things such as homework or go outside and play giving them exercise, however it is not something that the players want because most are addicted to the games. Any of these would drastically reduce the violent behavior and most likely reduce other problems in society. Violence in video games is a mounting problem in our society and needs to be stopped. In order for things to change everyone needs do their part to solve the problem and stick to what they choose. Once this is done the society will be much better.