Friday, February 21, 2020

Health Economy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Health Economy - Essay Example (Fagnani, 1999). Principles Health economy plays an integral part in a country’s economy. The recent economic downturn has resulted in serious issues and one among them is the poor management of health economy. As the economic status of common people has gone through a tough phase, the government must help them in managing their medical expenses. This can be achieved by incorporating certain unique principles that would minimize their expenses. Insurance is one among the popular approaches that has been in use for many years. The main aim of insurance is to help the patients during surgeries or unexpected health problems. (Gruber, 2006). The insurance companies collect a minimum amount form the patients who enroll in their companies. This minimum premium amount is returned back to the investors during times of crisis. In this method, the investors are benefited since they receive the required amount of money when they are in need. This helps in the improvement of health econom y. Health financing agencies and organizations must be made compulsory in all the countries. This will ensure that the patients experience the entire benefit of the insurance scheme. (Kephart, 2007). Though this seems to be an efficient task, the amount of compensation is comparatively less. This leads to a situation where people do not get to experience the full benefits of the insurance policies. Most of the insurance policies include certain constraints that specify various restrictions. As these pre- conditions are not specified well in advance, it creates problem during the time of reimbursement. People find it difficult to manage with the amount provided by the insurance companies. Another option is to include discounting options in the medical bills. (Health Care, 2010)....   This essay discusses that the proposed evaluation method uses several concepts that enable the officials and the patients to have complete control over their medical expense. This also analyzes the medical expense incurred for a particular treatment. This enables the patient to be sure of the cost of each and every treatment. As the cost is known well in advance, the problem of huge medical bills is eradicated. Since the patients have an idea about the total cost of their treatment, they can easily pay back the money without much hassle.   Apart from this, the potential requirement of discount is more when compared to the other facilities. People are used to discounts and they prefer to get a certain amount at a discount from their medical bills. A clear analysis will help the hospital management and the concerned government to have a control over the health economy. In turn, will help them to maintain a stable facilitation that helps people.      Ã‚  Health economy is one that requires more attention when compared to the other ones in a country. Health intervention principles and policies lend a helping hand to the patients as well as the government in dealing with the increasing medical bills. The cost of implementing an evaluation method or a system depends on the hospital management and the concerned government. Even if the cost of implementing an evaluation system is more, the government must provide the necessary funds to implement them. This will certainly improve the existing situation and will help the patients at times of crisis.   Ã‚  Ã‚  

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Research methods Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Research methods - Essay Example However, the use of codes and standards not enough to stop unethical research, and the issues surrounding power and responsibility still exist. Procedural ethics need to be combined with personal integrity and virtue to ensure the safety of the participants while allowing the researchers to gather information efficiently (Schienke et al. 2010:4). Therefore, procedural ethics alone does not meet these needs. This can be seen by the fundamental flaws in the design of ethical codes, the failure of such codes to adequately protect the subject and the researcher during a study, and finally in the ways that personal values and beliefs can be combined with procedural methods to arrive at the most ethical solution for a given problem. The fact that ethical codes are often written by those who do not actually participate in research studies leads to many of the fundamental problems with procedural ethics. Codes may written in vague and unscientific language, and sometimes are impractical in a ctual research situations, as ethics in practice may differ from ethics in theory (Roberts and Indermaur 2007). A researcher cannot always stop to consult a code or committee of ethics, and should be able to rely on his or her own moral judgment (Henn, Weinstein, and Foard 2006:73). The focus for improving ethical behaviour among researchers should therefore be on building individual moral virtue and integrity as much as or more so than attempting to perfect standards for behaviour (Devettere 2009:363). Researchers must pay close attention to the wording of their surveys or the nature of an interview, for example, in order to ensure the subject is entirely aware of their choices about participation; the procedural guidelines cannot possibly cover all informed consent situations. Poor research practices are not excused for mistakes or omissions; those practices remain unethical behaviour. (Hoye and Severinsson 2007). None of this, however, should be taken to mean that procedural ethi cs does not have a place in medical or social research. Prior to the existence of ethical codes, researchers often took part in studies that today seem horrifying, and there were very few consequences (McNeil 2010). Study subjects were exposed to dangerous and sometimes deadly situations, and were not always fully informed as to the true nature of the experiment (Henn, Weinstein, and Foard 2006:71). While the data gathered from such studies has been useful in medical science, it is obvious that such unethical practices could not be allowed to continue. Modern procedural ethics began with the Nuremberg Code, written as a result of the Nazi doctors war crimes tribunal. The first internationally accepted standards of behaviour for medical researchers, the Nuremberg Code is a listing of 10 points that should be met in ethical research on human subjects. (Hazelgrove n.d.) Highlights include voluntary informed consent, protection of the subject from harm, and that the risk of the experime nt must be lower than the predicted gain from the study (Mitscherlich and Mielke 1949). Despite this paradigm shift in the acceptability of research, in the years following the adoption of the Nuremberg Code, unethical research continued to occur. This was due in part to the fact that the legal standing of the code was unclear and was never actually cited in the